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3. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in dogs in Lusaka district of Zambia
Lamson Mugala, Joyce Siwila, Ngonda Saasa and Girja Shanker Pandey
Veterinary World, 11(5): 585-589
Aim:Cryptosporidium is one of the causes of diarrheal illness in man and animals worldwide and is zoonotic. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium oocysts in dogs in Lusaka district of Zambia.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lusaka district of Zambia during 2015-2016. A total of 390 dogs (243 males and 147 females) aged 2 months-13 years were enrolled. Fecal samples were collected and stained using modified Ziehl-Neelsen and Auramine O staining techniques and examined microscopically for oocysts.
Results: Overall, the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts infection was 5.9% (23/390; 95% confidence interval: 3.9-8.7). Prevalence among male dogs and female dogs was 5.3% and 6.8%, respectively. Older dogs had a relatively higher infection rate compared to the younger puppies. There was a statistically significant difference in infection between nondescript breed and pure breeds with prevalence being higher in nondescript dog breeds. Water source was also significantly associated with Cryptosporidium infection.
Conclusion:Cryptosporidium infections are common, especially among the nondescript breed of domestic dogs in Lusaka district of Zambia. Further studies to characterize the common species are warranted.
2. Epidemiology and diagnosis of feline panleukopenia virus in Egypt: Clinical and molecular diagnosis in cats
Romane A. Awad, Wagdy K. B. Khalil and Ashraf G. Attallah
Veterinary World, 11(5): 578-584
Aim: This work aimed to study epidemiology and diagnosis of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) using clinical examination, direct ELISA, RNA viral isolation and identification, and knowing phylogenetic tree of our isolate.
Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty-five cats of different ages and sex were examined. Each cat was examined clinically to detect the clinical manifestations of the disease showing symptoms suggestive of feline panleukopenia (FP) as well as ELISA, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification analyses were conducted.
Results: Our finding includes (a) clinical signs detected in 165 of 165 cats were in the form of lethargy, fever, anorexia, thirst, vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, and leukopenia. (b) ELISA results revealed that 66 of all examined cats were positive for FPV. (c) The amplification products from all positive samples were confirmed as FPV (VP1) gene by nucleotide sequences analysis, in which 75 samples were positive using PCR amplification for the FPV. (d) Statistical evaluation of ELISA results in comparison to PCR findings. ELISA showed 88%, 100%, and 94.5% for sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, respectively, while the prevalence of FP among the examined population was 45%. No effect on sex, breed, and age on ELISA results as recorded using Chi-square analysis.
Conclusion: The results of the sequence analysis indicated that PCR products of the FPV cDNA exhibited very low variation in their nucleotide sequence of all isolates compared with the published FPV genome, which could be suggested that FPV appears to be genomically stasis compared with other Parvoviruses. The genome sequence of FPLV strain in this study has been deposited in GenBank under the accession number KY466003. Our isolate closely related 100% to isolates from Portugal, which might be the origin of infection to Egypt through importation of cats.
1. Milk somatic cells, factors influencing their release, future prospects, and practical utility in dairy animals: An overview
Mohanned Naif Alhussien and Ajay Kumar Dang
Veterinary World, 11(5): 562-577
Milk somatic cells (SCs) are a mixture of milk-producing cells and immune cells. These cells are secreted in milk during the normal course of milking and are used as an index for estimating mammary health and milk quality of dairy animals worldwide. Milk SC is influenced by cow productivity, health, parity, lactation stage, and breed of an animal. Any change in environmental conditions, poor management practices, and also stressful conditions significantly increases the amount of SC coming in milk. Better hygiene and proper nutrition help in reducing milk SC. Milk with low SC means better milk products with a longer shelf life. The present review describes the role of SCs (both secretory and immune) in milk, their role in maintaining the integrity of the mammary gland, and factors affecting their release in milk. This information may help to reduce milk somatic cell counts (SCCs) and to establish differential SCC standards.
23. Cloning and sequence analysis of a partial CDS of leptospiral ligA gene in pET-32a - Escherichia coliDH5α system
Manju Soman, Mangattuparambil Mini, Siju Joseph, Jobin Thomas, Nirmal Chacko, T. G. Sumithra, R. Ambily, Binu K. Mani and Rinsha Balan
Veterinary World, 11(4): 557-561
Aim: This study aims at cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of a partial CDS of ligA gene in pET-32a - Escherichia coli DH5α system, with the objective of identifying the conserved nature of the ligA gene in the genus Leptospira.
Materials and Methods: A partial CDS (nucleotide 1873 to nucleotide 3363) of the ligA gene was amplified from genomic DNA of Leptospira interrogans serovar Canicola by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR-amplified DNA was cloned into pET-32a vector and transformed into competent E. coli DH5α bacterial cells. The partial ligA gene insert was sequenced and the nucleotide sequences obtained were aligned with the published ligA gene sequences of other Leptospira serovars, using nucleotide BLAST, NCBI. Phylogenetic analysis of the gene sequence was done by maximum likelihood method using Mega 6.06 software.
Results: The PCR could amplify the 1491 nucleotide sequence spanning from nucleotide 1873 to nucleotide 3363 of the ligA gene and the partial ligA gene could be successfully cloned in E. coli DH5α cells. The nucleotide sequence when analyzed for homology with the reported gene sequences of other Leptospira serovars was found to have 100% homology to the 1910 bp to 3320 bp sequence of ligA gene of L. interrogansstrain Kito serogroup Canicola. The predicted protein consisted of 470 aminoacids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the ligA gene was conserved in L. interrogans species.
Conclusion: The partial ligA gene could be successfully cloned and sequenced from E. coli DH5α cells. The sequence showed 100% homology to the published ligA gene sequences. The phylogenetic analysis revealed the conserved nature of the ligA gene. Further studies on the expression and immunogenicity of the partial LigA protein need to be carried out to determine its competence as a subunit vaccine candidate.
22. Prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal helminths in free-ranging Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) in Bangladesh
Mizanur Rahman, Shariful Islam, Md. Masuduzzaman, Mahabub Alam, Mohammad Nizam Uddin Chawdhury, Jinnat Ferdous, Md. Nurul Islam, Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain and Ariful Islam
Veterinary World, 11(4): 549-556
Background and Aim: Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus), a widely distributed small mammal in the South Asian region, can carry helminths of zoonotic importance. The aim of the study was to know the prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal (GI) helminths in free-ranging Asian house shrew (S. murinus) in Bangladesh.
Materials and Methods: A total of 86 Asian house shrews were captured from forest areas and other habitats of Bangladesh in 2015. Gross examination of the whole GI tract was performed for gross helminth detection, and coproscopy was done for identification of specific eggs or larvae.
Results: The overall prevalence of GI helminth was 77.9% (67/86), with six species including nematodes (3), cestodes (2), and trematodes (1). Of the detected helminths, the dominant parasitic group was from the genus Hymenolepis spp. (59%), followed by Strongyloides spp. (17%), Capillaria spp. (10%), Physaloptera spp. (3%), and Echinostoma spp. (3%).
Conclusion: The finding shows that the presence of potential zoonotic parasites (Hymenolepis spp. and Capillaria spp.) in Asian house shrew is ubiquitous in all types of habitat (forest land, cropland and dwelling) in Bangladesh. Therefore, further investigation is crucial to examine their role in the transmission of human helminthiasis.
Keywords: Asian house shrew, Bangladesh, gastrointestinal helminths, prevalence, Suncus murinus.
21. Effect of Doublesynch and Estradoublesynch protocols on estrus induction, conception rate, plasma progesterone, protein, and cholesterol profile in anestrus Gir heifers
N. J. Chaudhary, D. M. Patel, A. J. Dhami, K. B. Vala, K. K. Hadiya and J. A. Patel
Veterinary World, 11(4): 542-548
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Doublesynch and Estradoublesynch protocols on estrus induction, conception rates, plasma progesterone, protein, and cholesterol profile in anestrus Gir heifers.
Materials and Methods: In this study, 50 pubertal anestrus Gir heifers were selected from the field and farm conditions. The heifers were dewormed (injection ivermectin, 100 mg, s/c) and supplemented with minerals and vitamins (injection organic phosphorus 800 mg and injection Vitamin AD3E and Biotin 10 ml i/m) and multi-mineral bolus at 1 bolus daily for 7 days. The heifers were randomly divided into three groups: Doublesynch (n=20), Estradoublesynch (n=20), and control (n=10). The animals were monitored for estrus response, estrus interval, behavioral signs, and conception rates after induced/first, second, and third cycle post-treatment. Blood samples were obtained on day 0, day 9, day 12, and on day 12 post-artificial insemination (AI) for determination of plasma progesterone, protein, and cholesterol profile.
Results: The estrus response rate between Doublesynch and Estradoublesynch protocols was similar between treated heifers (85% and 95%). The interval from the second prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) injection to estrus induction did not differ between the groups (63.87±4.19 vs. 58.27±3.83 h). The conception rates following induced estrus (20% vs. 30%), at the second cycle (23.07% vs. 16.66%), at the third cycle (22.22% vs. 30.00%), and the overall conception rate (45% and 55%) within 27.89±5.75 and 26.45±5.48 days were the same across the treatment groups. The mean plasma progesterone concentrations were significantly (p<0.01) higher on day 9 (second PGF2α injection) and day 12 post-AI compared to day 0 (first PGF2α injection) and the day of fixed-timed artificial insemination. The concentrations were also significantly (p<0.05) higher in conceived than non-conceived heifers on day 9 of treatment and day 12 post-AI in both the protocols. The mean plasma cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher during peak follicular and luteal phases compared to the initial anestrus phase in both the protocols. The values were also higher in non-conceived than conceived animals in both the protocols. The plasma protein profile was not influenced by the sampling days or conceived and non-conceived status.
Conclusion: The results showed that both Doublesynch and Estradoublesynch protocols resulted in similar estrus induction and conception rates with modulation of plasma progesterone and cholesterol profile in anestrus Gir heifers.
20. Copy number variation in livestock: A mini review
V. Bhanuprakash, Supriya Chhotaray, D. R. Pruthviraj, Chandrakanta Rawat, A. Karthikeyan and Manjit Panigrahi
Veterinary World, 11(4): 535-541
Copy number variation (CNV) is a phenomenon in which sections of the genome, ranging from one kilo base pair (Kb) to several million base pairs (Mb), are repeated and the number of repeats vary between the individuals in a population. It is an important source of genetic variation in an individual which is now being utilized rather than single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as it covers the more genomic region. CNVs alter the gene expression and change the phenotype of an individual due to deletion and duplication of genes in the copy number variation regions (CNVRs). Earlier, researchers extensively utilized SNPs as the main source of genetic variation. But now, the focus is on identification of CNVs associated with complex traits. With the recent advances and reduction in the cost of sequencing, arrays are developed for genotyping which cover the maximum number of SNPs at a time that can be used for detection of CNVRs and underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the complex traits to accelerate genetic improvement. CNV studies are also being carried out to understand the evolutionary mechanism in the domestication of livestock and their adaptation to the different environmental conditions. The main aim of the study is to review the available data on CNV and its role in genetic variation among the livestock.
Keywords: copy number variation, copy number variation regions, livestock, single nucleotide polymorphisms, quantitative trait loci.