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9. Prevalence of liver flukes infections and hydatidosis in slaughtered sheep and goats in Nishapour, Khorasan Razavi, Iran
Majid Aminzare, Mohammad Hashemi, Samaneh Yaghoobi Faz, Mojtaba Raeisi and Hassan Hassanzadazar
Veterinary World, 11(2): 146-150
Background: Food-borne trematode infections and hydatidosis are endemic diseases caused by helminths in Iran that are responsible for great economic loss and getting public health at risk.
Aim: Aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of fasciolosis, dicrocoeliasis, and hydatidosis infections in slaughtered sheep and goats in Nishapour, Khorasan Razavi province of Iran.
Materials and Methods: A survey was implemented on 130,107 sheep and goats slaughtered at an abattoir in Nishapour (Neyshbur) city, north central Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran, to determine the prevalence of fascioliasis, dicrocoeliosis and presence of hydatidosis.
Results: During a 1-year period of study, among 130,107 of sheep and goats slaughtered at Nishapour abattoir, 1064 and 7124 livers were condemned totally and partially, respectively. A total of 255 (0.19%), 181 (0.12 %), and 7751 (5.95%) of livers were condemned due to cysts of Echinococcus granulosus, flukes of Fasciola spp., and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, respectively. Totally, 1932 (1.48%) lungs were condemned due to hydatidosis. The significant seasonal pattern was seen for fasciolosis, dicrocoeliosis, and hydatidosis, statistically (p<0.01).
Conclusion: According to this study, it seems that Neyshabour is considered as an endemic region for Fasciola spp. and D. dendriticum infections and D. dendriticum is the most widespread liver fluke found in sheep and goats.
Keywords:Dicrocoeliasis, Fascioliasis, Hydatidosis, sheep and goat, slaughterhouse.
8. Ethnoveterinary treatments for common cattle diseases in four districts of the Southern Province, Zambia
Michelo Syakalima, Martin Simuunza and Victor Chisha Zulu
Veterinary World, 11(2): 141-145
Aim: Ethnoveterinary knowledge has rarely been recorded, and no or limited effort has been made to exploit this knowledge despite its widespread use in Zambia. This study documented the types of plants used to treat important animal diseases in rural Zambia as a way of initiating their sustained documentation and scientific validation.
Materials and Methods: The study was done in selected districts of the Southern Zambia, Africa. The research was a participatory epidemiological study conducted in two phases. The first phase was a pre-study exploratory rapid rural appraisal conducted to familiarize the researchers with the study areas, and the second phase was a participatory rural appraisal to help gather the data. The frequency index was used to rank the commonly mentioned treatments.
Results: A number of diseases and traditional treatments were listed with the help of local veterinarians. Diseases included: Corridor disease (Theileriosis), foot and mouth disease, blackleg, bloody diarrhea, lumpy skin disease, fainting, mange, blindness, coughing, bloat, worms, cobra snakebite, hemorrhagic septicemia, and transmissible venereal tumors. The plant preparations were in most diseases given to the livestock orally (as a drench). Leaves, barks, and roots were generally used depending on the plant type.
Conclusion: Ethnoveterinary medicine is still widespread among the rural farmers in the province and in Zambia in general. Some medicines are commonly used across diseases probably because they have a wide spectrum of action. These medicines should, therefore, be validated for use in conventional livestock healthcare systems in the country to reduce the cost of treatments.
Keywords: cattle, ethnomedicines, traditional farmers, Zambia.
7. The analysis of hippocampus neuronal density (CA1 and CA3) after Ocimum sanctum ethanolic extract treatment on the young adulthood and middle age rat model
Dwi Liliek Kusindarta, Hevi Wihadmadyatami and Aris Haryanto
Veterinary World, 11(2): 135-140
Aim: This study aimed to assess the changes in neuronal density in CA1 and CA3 regions in the hippocampus of young adulthood and middle age rat model after feeding by Ocimum sanctum ethanolic extract.
Materials and Methods: In this research, 30 male Wistar rats consist of young to middle-aged rats were divided into three groups (3, 6, and 9 months old) and treated with a different dosage of O. sanctum ethanolic extract (0, 50, and 100 mg/kg b.w.) for 45 days. Furthermore, cresyl violet staining was performed to analyze hippocampus formation mainly in CA1 and CA3 area. The concentrations of acetylcholine (Ach) in brain tissues were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results: In our in vivo models using rat model, we found that the administration of O. sanctum ethanolic extract with a dosage of 100 mg/kg b.w. for 45 days induced the density of pyramidal cells significantly in CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus. These results were supported by an increase of Ach concentrations on the brain tissue.
Conclusion: The administration of O. sanctum ethanolic extract may promote the density of the pyramidal cells in the CA1 and CA3 mediated by the up-regulated concentration of Ach.
Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of exogenous melatonin under different photoperiods on oxidative status in Chhotanagpuri ewe.
Materials and Methods: A total of 42 non-pregnant, non-lactating Chhotanagpuri ewe, having body weight ranging between 14.11±0.09 and 15.38±0.06 kg, were selected and were isolated from rams 2 months before melatonin administration. The selected animals were allocated randomly into seven groups, namely, Group I (normal control), Group II (long day [LD] control), Group III (LD+melatonin administration orally, 3 mg/day), Group IV (LD+melatonin administration subcutaneously, 1 mg/day), Group V (short day [SD] control), Group VI (SD+melatonin administration orally, 3 mg/day), and Group VII (SD+melatonin administration subcutaneously, 1 mg/day) comprising six animals in each group. Rams were then introduced into each group after completion of exogenous administration of melatonin. Blood samples with anticoagulant in vials were collected from each animal day before the start of the experiment and thereafter every month up to 5th month. Hemolysate was prepared for estimation of oxidative stress parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT).
Results: It was observed that the level of MDA was significantly (p<0.05) higher in LD groups (Group II, III and IV) in comparison to control and SD groups (VI and VII) at 1st month. MDA concentration after exogenous administration of melatonin was significantly (p<0.05) decreased in Group IV and VI in comparison to 1st month. SOD was significantly (p<0.05) higher in SD groups (V, VI, and VII) at the 1st month in comparison to 0 day. After exogenous administration of melatonin, SOD concentration was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups III and IV in comparison to 1st month. CAT was significantly (p<0.05) higher in SD groups (V, VI, and VII) in comparison to control and LD groups. After exogenous administration of melatonin, CAT concentration was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups III, IV, VI, and VIII in comparison to Groups I, II, and V. At the 3rd month, CAT concentration significantly (p<0.05) decreased in Groups III, IV, VI, and VII in comparison to 2nd month of experiment. However, a decreasing trend of CAT was observed in all the groups from 3rd to 5th month.
Conclusion: The present experiment revealed that exogenous melatonin was able to reduce significantly the level of MDA and increased the activity of SOD and CAT in Chhotanagpuri ewe.
5. Bacteriological cure rate and changes in milk composition in mastitis vaccinated ewes affected with subclinical mastitis
Myassar O. Alekish, Z. Bani Ismail, H. M. Hammouri, M. H. Daradka, S. Al Taha and I. Olymat
Veterinary World, 11(2): 125-129
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of using a commercially-available polyvalent mastitis vaccine on the bacteriological cure rate of existing subclinical mastitis in Awassi sheep.
Materials and Methods: A total of 164 lactating ewes were divided into two main groups according to udder health and milk somatic cell count (SCC): Group 1=normal (N; n=80) and Group 2=subclinical mastitis (SC; n=84). Each group was then subdivided randomly into two treatment groups: N vaccinated (Nvax; n=38), N non-vaccinated (Nnvax; n=42), SC vaccinated (SCvax; n=42), and SC non-vaccinated (SCnvax; n=42). The vaccine was administered as per manufacturer's recommendations. Milk samples were collected aseptically from all ewes before vaccine administration (T0) and again on days 28 (T2) and 42 (T3) of the experiment.
Results: In the SC group, the bacteriological cure rates in vaccinated and non-vaccinated ewes were 76% and 69%, respectively. In N group, the new intramammary infection rates in vaccinated and non-vaccinated ewes were 48% and 50%, respectively. Vaccination of normal ewes resulted in a significant (p<0.05) reduction in bacterial growth rate both at day 28 and day 42 of the study. The prevalence of new intramammary infection rate in Nvax ewes on days 28 and 42 was 19% and 20%, respectively. The prevalence of new intramammary infection rate in Nnvax group on days 28 and 42 was 33% and 30%, respectively. In SCvax group, the bacterial growth rate on days 28 and 42 was 44% and 35%, respectively. In SCnvax group, the bacterial growth rate on days 28 and 42 was 27% and 32%, respectively. There was no statistically significant effect of vaccination on any of the studied milk composition parameters.
Conclusion: This is a preliminary study that indicated a possible protective effect of vaccination against mastitis in sheep. Further, case-controlled studies are indicated to estimate the level of immunity this vaccine provides to vaccinated sheep.
4. Market potential and opportunities for commercialization of traditional meat products in North East Hill Region of India
G. Kadirvel, Bandita B. Banerjee, Surajit Meitei, S. Doley, Arnab Sen and M. Muthukumar
Veterinary World, 11(2): 118-124
The North Eastern (NE) India is renowned for its preference for animal-based food. This region is known for its traditional meat products. However, the popularity of these products remains confined to the specific community/location. The knowledge on the traditional preparation methods is generally passed across generations through practice and word of mouth. The traditional style of preparation and the specific ingredients added to each product makes them unique. In this review, an attempt has been made to identify the initiatives, opportunities, and market potential for commercialization of the traditional meat products. These unique features and properties of the traditional meat products have been highlighted. The commercialization of these products will enhance entrepreneurship development and ensure quality ethnic products to the consumer in the NE hill region of India.
Keywords: commercialization, North East India, meat, products, property, traditional.
3. Hepato nephropathology associated with inclusion body hepatitis complicated with citrinin mycotoxicosis in a broiler farm
Asok Kumar Mariappan, Palanivelu Munusamy, Shyma K. Latheef, Shambu Dayal Singh and Kuldeep Dhama
Veterinary World, 11(2): 112-117
Aim: Mortality in a broiler chicken farm was investigated for identifying the cause of mortality.
Materials and Methods: A broiler farm with a population of 16000 succumbed to a disease outbreak. Clinical signs, vaccination history and mortality, were recorded. Necropsy examination and microscopic examination were carried out along with toxicological and molecular studies.
Results: The clinical signs in the affected broiler birds were of non-specific nature with a total mortality of 26.39%. Postmortem examination and microscopical findings revealed hepatitis with basophilic intranuclear inclusion, splenitis, myocarditis, and nephritis. Glomerulonephritis was the prominent renal pathology recorded in this study. Polymerase chain reaction test confirmed the presence of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) genome in the target organs, and toxicological examination by thin-layer chromatography revealed the presence of a toxic level of citrinin in the feed samples.
Conclusion: Based on various diagnostic investigations, the mortality in the flock was attributed to inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) complicated with citrinin mycotoxicosis. Thus, apart from liver pathology which occurs in a classical IBH cases, glomerulonephritis too occurs which are also a prominent finding which pathologists often miss. Thus, kidneys should also be examined histologically to assess the microscopic tissue alterations in poultry suspected for IBH along with a mycotoxicological analysis of feed. This will definitely throw light on the synergistic pathology elicited and exhibited by FAdV and mycotoxins in the poultry.
Keywords: citrinin, fowl adenovirus, glomerulonephritis, inclusion body hepatitis, thin-layer chromatography.